- Dating Methods in Historical Archaeology
- Chronological dating
- Dating Techniques In Archaeology
- Dating Methods in Historical Archaeology
- Dating Techniques In Archaeology
- Chronological dating
The real meaning of history is to trace the developments in various fields of the human past. Towards this end, while investigating the past cultures, archaeology depends on various dating methods. These dating methods can broadly be divided into two categories, i. These are mainly non-scientific dating methods. These methods were relied on especially prior to the introduction of scientific methods of dating.
But, even when the scientific methods of absolute dating are available, this method of dating has not lost its importance, as many a time we have to depend solely on relative dating. Even when the absolute dates are available, we have to supplement the information with relative dating. The various methods of relative dating are;. This method depends on the common observation that the height of the habitational area increases as the people continue to live at the same place.
The deposit thus occurring forms layers depending on the nature of the material brought in by the people inhabiting the area. According to this method, the upper deposits are younger and the lower deposits are older. Basing on this principle, the cultural assemblages found in different layers can be assigned a chronological personality. For example, if the cultural contents of the lower deposit are Mauryan in character, appropriately this deposit may be assigned a date between B.
Similarly, if the cultural equipment of the upper deposit are of the Sunga period, this deposit has to placed between B. This method, however, has some disadvantages. In such cases subjective element cannot be ruled out. But, for a single culture site the method is quite reliable. Quite convincing dates are sometimes arrived at by importing parallels from other contemporaneous cultures. This parallelism is formed due to trade relations, particularly wehen trade followed in both directions.
For example, beads closely resembling those from the temple repositories at Cnoss and dating from C. C were found in a late context Period V at Harappa. This closely agrees with the fact that the seals from Indus Valley style from Ur, Kish and Tell Asmar and other sites fall within the range of B. By noting the association of these beads it has been possible to trace a archaeological datum line across Indian sub-continent and Mesopotamia.
When a group or type of objects are found together under circumstances suggesting contemporanity they are said to be associated. It is nearly always association with other phenomena that gives a first clue as to the use, the age and chronological attribution of a potential datum, but age at least may sometimes be inferred from position in a geological deposit or a layer of peat.
Once a type has been classified by the aid of its context further specimen of the same type, even when found in isolation, can be assigned their place in terms of dates. Association in simplicity can be illustrated by an example, at the port of Arikamedu near Pondicherry. Antiquities and potteries of Roman origin were found in association with the finds of Indian origin. With the aid of these dated imports it was possible to date the associated Indian objects to the first two centuries A.
Sometimes dates are also obtained with the assistance of astronomy. Clay tablets found in West Asia contain inscriptional evidence with regard to the occurrence of a solar eclipse. Specialists in the field of astronomical research placed this solar eclipse as on 15 th June B. The Almanac belonging to Maya culture of Central America helped in dating several important sites accurately on the basis of astronomy. Astronomical data have been applied in the study of geological ice ages by calculating the curves for major fluctuation of solar radiation.
Consequently, the chronology worked out for the geological deposits helped in dating the prehistoric tools found in these deposits. There are certain antiquities and potteries which by themselves have acquired a dating value. Whenever and where ever such antiquities are found, associated finds are automatically dated. Sir Flinders Petrie had worked out a formula for dating the finds on the basis of the thickness of the deposit. According to him a period of hundred years may be granted for the accumulation of a deposit of one and a half feet.
However this formula has not been accepted by many archaeologists. Further this formula has been disproved on many occasions. Pottery is probably the most abundantly available antique material in any archaeological site. It is based on the simple fact that industrial and art forms and for that matter all objects are subject to evolutionary process. Working out these changes brought in during the evolutionary process helps us in fixing chronological slots for different shapes.
Examples may be cited from Greek archaeology where even the shapes of the pots have been appropriately and approximately dated. Similarly the forms of the pots of the Maya culture and the shapes and decorations on the Chinese potteries have been so adequately dated that their relative dating value is immense. But in India though the variety of wares are satisfactorily dated the typological evolution is yet to be worked out.
Houses, publica buildings and places of worship are also quite useful in providing relative dating. It is a common knowledge that the building and the building material of Harappan architecture are quite characteristic. Again the architectural feature of the building of th4e Sultanate period, Mughal period, Maratha period are quite distinct and have, therefore, accordingly been assigned different dates. This is one of the most important methods of dating the ancient objects which contain some carbon in them.
This method was discovered by Prof. Willard F. Libby in , which won him Noble Prize in Chemistry. This method has achieved fame within a short time largely because it provides chronology for the prehistoric cultures, when we do not have written records. Scientific Explanation of this Therory: This method is based on the presence of radio-active carbon of atomic weight 14 in organic matter. Cosmic radiation produces in the upper atmosphere of the earth Neutron particles, some of which hit the atoms of ordinary Nitrogen.
This is captured by the nucleus of the nitrogen atom, which gives off a proton and thus changing to Carbon This creation of new carbon atoms and then reverting to nitrogen has achieved a state of equilibrium in the long duration of the earths existence. Thus the process of radio carbon present in the living organism is same as in the atmosphere. It is further assumed that all living animals derive body material from the plant kingdom, and also exhibit the same proportion of C material.
Therefore as soon as the organism dies no further radiocarbon is added. At that time the radioactive disintegration takes over in an uncompensated manner. The C has a half-life of about years, i. In the disintegration process the Carbon returns to nitrogen emitting a beta particle in the process. The quantity of the C remaining is measured by counting the beta radiation emitted per minute per gram of material. Modern C emits about 15 counts per minute per gram, whereas Carbon which is years old, emits about 7.
Specimens for C Dating: Specimens of organic material which can yield good amount of carbon can be collected for C dating. Quantity of Samples: Quantity of samples sent for radicarbon dating should be sufficient enough to give proper results. As quite a bit of sample is lost in the pre-pigmentation process one should try to collect as big sample as possible. Bones are generally affected by ground water carbonates and are therefore least reliable for dating. Charred bones are better preserved and are therefore relatively more reliable.
Charcoal is best material specially if derived from short live plants. How to collect samples: While collecting samples for radio carbon dating we should take utmost care, and should observe the following principles and methods. Sample should be collected from and undisturbed layer. Deposits bearing, pit activities and overlap of layers are not good for sampling. The excavator himself should collect the sample from an undisturbed area of the site which has a fair soil cover and is free of lay water associated structures like ring wells and soakage pits.
Samples which are in contact or near the roots of any plants or trees should not be collected because these roots may implant fresh carbon into the specimens. Handling with bare hands may add oil, grease, etc to the sample. Therefore, it is better to collect samples with clean and dry stainless steel sclapels or squeezers.
It may also be collected with the help of glass. Stainless steel, glass, polythene and aluminium are free from carbonatious organic material. Therefore sampling should be done with such material only. Samples should be sundried before pacing in aluminium thin foils and placed in a glass jar or secured safely in thick polythene covers. Before pacing the soil should be removed while it is wet at the site. Method of Sample Recording: Before removing the sample from the site we should note down the data or the environment of the sample.
We have to fill the data sheets, which should be done at the time of sampling and should be submitted along with the sample to the dating laboratory. These sheets require data on environment and stratigraphy of the sample, and archaeological estimates of its dating. This data help in obtaining and objective interpretation of dates. Limitation and Errors of C Dating: There are a number of technical difficulties inherent in this method of dating.
The first difficulty is that the quantity required for a single determination is comparatively large. It will be difficult to obtain sufficient quantities of samples, especially in the case of valuable museum specimens. The second difficulty is that the radio active decay does not take place at a uniform rate but is a random process, and is therefore, governed by the laws of statistical probability.
When museums and collectors purchase archaeological items for their collections they enter an expensive and potentially deceptive commercial fine arts arena. Healthy profits are to be made from illicitly plundered ancient sites or selling skillfully made forgeries. Archaeology dating techniques can assure buyers that their item is not a fake by providing scientific reassurance of the artefact’s likely age. Archaeological scientists have two primary ways of telling the age of artefacts and the sites from which they came: Relative Dating In Archaeology Relative dating in archaeology presumes the age of an artefact in relation and by comparison, to other objects found in its vicinity.
Chronological dating , or simply dating , is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology. This usually requires what is commonly known as a “dating method”.
The dating of remains is essential in archaeology, in order to place finds in correct relation to one another, and to understand what was present in the experience of any human being at a given time and place. Inscribed objects sometimes bear an explicit date, or preserve the name of a dated individual. In such cases, dating might seem easy. However, only a small number of objects are datable by inscriptions, and there are many specific problems with Egyptian chronology, so that even inscribed objects are rarely datable in absolute terms. In the archaeology of part-literate societies, dating may be said to operate on two levels: The contrast might also be drawn between two ‘dimensions’, the historical, and the archaeological, corresponding roughly to the short-term and long-term history envisaged by Fernand Braudel.
Without the ability to date archaeological sites and specific contexts within them, archaeologists would be unable to study cultural change and continuity over time. No wonder, then, that so much effort has been devoted to developing increasingly sophisticated and precise methods for determining when events happened in the past. In archaeology, dating techniques fall into two broad categories: Chronometric dating techniques produce a specific chronological date or date range for some event in the past. For example, the results of dendrochronology tree-ring analysis may tell us that a particular roof beam was from a tree chopped down in A. Relative dating techniques , on the other hand, provide only the relative order in which events took place. For example, the stratum, or layer, in which an artifact is found in an ancient structure may make it clear that the artifact was deposited sometime after people stopped living in the structure but before the roof collapsed. However, the stratigraphic position alone cannot tell us the exact date. Download app.
The real meaning of history is to trace the developments in various fields of the human past. Towards this end, while investigating the past cultures, archaeology depends on various dating methods.
Мотоцикл и такси с грохотом въехали в пустой ангар. Беккер лихорадочно осмотрел его в поисках укрытия, но задняя стена ангара, громадный щит из гофрированного металла, не имела ни дверей, ни окон.
Беккер снисходительно покачал головой: – Иногда все выглядит не так, как есть на самом деле. Лицо немца стало белым как полотно. Беккер был доволен. Ложь подействовала: бедняга даже вспотел. – Че-че-го же вы хотите? – выдавил он заикаясь. – Я ничего не знаю. Беккер зашагал по комнате. – На руке умершего было золотое кольцо.
Я хочу его забрать. – У м-меня его. Беккер покровительственно улыбнулся и перевел взгляд на дверь в ванную. – А у Росио.
Простите, что я на вас накричала. Я так испугалась, увидев. – Не стоит, – удивился Беккер – Я зашел куда не следовало. – Моя просьба покажется вам безумной, – сказала она, заморгав красными глазами, – но не могли бы вы одолжить мне немного денег. Беккер посмотрел на нее в полном недоумении. – Зачем вам деньги? – спросил. Я не собираюсь оплачивать твое пристрастие к наркотикам, если речь идет об .
Если вы принесете мне его паспорт, я позабочусь, чтобы он его получил. – Видите ли, я в центре города, без машины, – ответил голос. – Может быть, вы могли бы подойти. – Понимаете, я не могу отойти от телефона, – уклончиво отозвался Ролдан. – Но если вы в центре, то это совсем недалеко от .
У него закружилась голова. Увидев выгравированные знаки, Беккер страшно удивился. Он совсем забыл про кольцо на пальце, забыл, для чего приехал в Севилью. Он посмотрел на приближающуюся фигуру, затем перевел взгляд на кольцо. Из-за чего погибла Меган. Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине. Человек неумолимо приближался по крутой дорожке.
Директор, у нас нет выбора. Мы должны вырубить питание главного банка данных. – Это невозможно, – сказал директор. – Вы представляете, каковы будут последствия. Джабба отлично знал, что директор прав. Более трех тысяч узлов Независимой цифровой сети связывают весь мир с базой данных агентства.
Телефонный звонок окончательно прогнал сон. Сьюзан Флетчер вздохнула, села в кровати и потянулась к трубке. – Алло. – Сьюзан, это Дэвид. Я тебя разбудил.
Relative dating methods (ANT)